- The PWT approach utilizes process units with a proven operating track record in other industrial environments. No development activity is required.
- The process is a continuous, not a batch process.
- It can produce concentrated brine up to approximately 300,000 TDS, for disposal via injection wells..
- It is scalable to each operating site, defined by the available amount of waste heat or combustible fuel (should that approach be mandated), salinity of the water, volume of water to be treated, and regulatory limits on the salinity of the water to be disposed.
- Proven designs avoid system salt corrosion or deposition or aerosol salt emissions.
- Provision is available for recovery or destruction of hydrocarbon contaminants.
A feature of the Keller-Noble Process© system is adaptability. Variations of the process are illustrated in Figure 1 (click to bring up the two scenarios).
- Adiabatic evaporation, a lower cost option that is appropriate where a large quantity of waste heat is available and no value is placed on the recovery of hot water.
- Multiple-effect evaporation, a higher cost option that is appropriate where waste heat is in short supply, given the volume of water to be processed, and where there is a value placed on the recovery of hot water.
Within each variation, the process can be customized to meet site characteristics (e.g. mass flow rates, water volume reduction required) and regulatory requirements (e.g. maximum acceptable salinity of the processed water stream).